

Notes:
This simple filtered voltage divider circuit works well when the current draws are low, or at least very close to being equal, on the +V and V load rails. It does not work so well for highly asymmetrical loads, or where low quiescent current draw is important (lowpower battery circuits, for example). In applications requiring better +V/V voltage stability, an opamp "follower" circuit is recommended after the voltage divider.

Notes:
This technique is frequently used to "bound" the range of a potentiometer within a pair of desired limits. For a circuit such as this, the only way to really determine where the upper and lower limits are is by experimenting.
Notes:
Unwanted oscillations in amplifier circuitry is a very real problem many electronics technicians and engineers alike must face. There is often no single correct solution to the problem, given the multiple avenues through which regenerative feedback may take place in a circuit.