# Digital signals and gates

While the binary numeration system is an interesting mathematical abstraction, we haven't yet seen its practical application to electronics. This chapter is devoted to just that: practically applying the concept of binary bits to circuits. What makes binary numeration so important to the application of digital electronics is the ease in which bits may be represented in physical terms. Because a binary bit can only have one of two different values, either 0 or 1, any physical medium capable of switching between two saturated states may be used to represent a bit. Consequently, any physical system capable of representing binary bits is able to represent numerical quantities, and potentially has the ability to manipulate those numbers. This is the basic concept underlying digital computing.

Electronic circuits are physical systems that lend themselves well to the representation of binary numbers. Transistors, when operated at their bias limits, may be in one of two different states: either cutoff (no controlled current) or saturation (maximum controlled current). If a transistor circuit is designed to maximize the probability of falling into either one of these states (and not operating in the linear, or *active*, mode), it can serve as a physical representation of a binary bit. A voltage signal measured at the output of such a circuit may also serve as a representation of a single bit, a low voltage representing a binary "0" and a (relatively) high voltage representing a binary "1." Note the following transistor circuit:

In this circuit, the transistor is in a state of saturation by virtue of the applied input voltage (5 volts) through the two-position switch. Because its saturated, the transistor drops very little voltage between collector and emitter, resulting in an output voltage of (practically) 0 volts. If we were using this circuit to represent binary bits, we would say that the input signal is a binary "1" and that the output signal is a binary "0." Any voltage close to full supply voltage (measured in reference to ground, of course) is considered a "1" and a lack of voltage is considered a "0." Alternative terms for these voltage levels are *high* (same as a binary "1") and *low* (same as a binary "0"). A general term for the representation of a binary bit by a circuit voltage is *logic level*.

Moving the switch to the other position, we apply a binary "0" to the input and receive a binary "1" at the output:

What we've created here with a single transistor is a circuit generally known as a *logic gate*, or simply *gate*. A gate is a special type of amplifier circuit designed to accept and generate voltage signals corresponding to binary 1's and 0's. As such, gates are not intended to be used for amplifying analog signals (voltage signals *between* 0 and full voltage). Used together, multiple gates may be applied to the task of binary number storage (memory circuits) or manipulation (computing circuits), each gate's output representing one bit of a multi-bit binary number. Just how this is done is a subject for a later chapter. Right now it is important to focus on the operation of individual gates.

The gate shown here with the single transistor is known as an *inverter*, or NOT gate, because it outputs the exact opposite digital signal as what is input. For convenience, gate circuits are generally represented by their own symbols rather than by their constituent transistors and resistors. The following is the symbol for an inverter:

An alternative symbol for an inverter is shown here:

Notice the triangular shape of the gate symbol, much like that of an operational amplifier. As was stated before, gate circuits actually are amplifiers. The small circle, or "bubble" shown on either the input or output terminal is standard for representing the inversion function. As you might suspect, if we were to remove the bubble from the gate symbol, leaving only a triangle, the resulting symbol would no longer indicate inversion, but merely direct amplification. Such a symbol and such a gate actually do exist, and it is called a *buffer*, the subject of the next section.

Like an operational amplifier symbol, input and output connections are shown as single wires, the implied reference point for each voltage signal being "ground." In digital gate circuits, ground is almost always the negative connection of a single voltage source (power supply). Dual, or "split," power supplies are seldom used in gate circuitry. Because gate circuits are amplifiers, they require a source of power to operate. Like operational amplifiers, the power supply connections for digital gates are often omitted from the symbol for simplicity's sake. If we were to show *all* the necessary connections needed for operating this gate, the schematic would look something like this:

Power supply conductors are rarely shown in gate circuit schematics, even if the power supply connections at each gate are. Minimizing lines in our schematic, we get this:

"V_{cc}" stands for the constant voltage supplied to the collector of a bipolar junction transistor circuit, in reference to ground. Those points in a gate circuit marked by the label "V_{cc}" are all connected to the same point, and that point is the positive terminal of a DC voltage source, usually 5 volts.

As we will see in other sections of this chapter, there are quite a few different types of logic gates, most of which have multiple input terminals for accepting more than one signal. The output of any gate is dependent on the state of its input(s) and its logical function.

One common way to express the particular function of a gate circuit is called a *truth table*. Truth tables show all combinations of input conditions in terms of logic level states (either "high" or "low," "1" or "0," for each input terminal of the gate), along with the corresponding output logic level, either "high" or "low." For the inverter, or NOT, circuit just illustrated, the truth table is very simple indeed:

Truth tables for more complex gates are, of course, larger than the one shown for the NOT gate. A gate's truth table must have as many rows as there are possibilities for unique input combinations. For a single-input gate like the NOT gate, there are only two possibilities, 0 and 1. For a two input gate, there are *four* possibilities (00, 01, 10, and 11), and thus four rows to the corresponding truth table. For a three-input gate, there are *eight* possibilities (000, 001, 010, 011, 100, 101, 110, and 111), and thus a truth table with eight rows are needed. The mathematically inclined will realize that the number of truth table rows needed for a gate is equal to 2 raised to the power of the number of input terminals.

**REVIEW:**- In digital circuits, binary bit values of 0 and 1 are represented by voltage signals measured in reference to a common circuit point called
*ground*. An absence of voltage represents a binary "0" and the presence of full DC supply voltage represents a binary "1." - A
*logic gate*, or simply*gate*, is a special form of amplifier circuit designed to input and output*logic level*voltages (voltages intended to represent binary bits). Gate circuits are most commonly represented in a schematic by their own unique symbols rather than by their constituent transistors and resistors. - Just as with operational amplifiers, the power supply connections to gates are often omitted in schematic diagrams for the sake of simplicity.
- A
*truth table*is a standard way of representing the input/output relationships of a gate circuit, listing all the possible input logic level combinations with their respective output logic levels.